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A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Well Parent Japan in routine care in Japan: The training and nurturing support for mothers (TRANSFORM) study.

BACKGROUND: Well Parent Japan (WPJ) is a new hybrid group parent training programme combining sessions to improve mothers' psychological well-being with a culturally adapted version of the New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP). This study investigates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of WPJ against treatment as usual (TAU) within Japanese child mental health services.

METHODS: TRANSFORM was a pragmatic multi-site randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms. Altogether 124 mothers of 6-12-year-old children with DSM-5 ADHD were randomised to WPJ (n = 65) or TAU (n = 59). Participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and three-month follow-up. The primary outcome was parent-domain stress following intervention. Secondary outcomes included maternal reports of child-domain stress, parenting practices, parenting efficacy, mood, family strain, child behaviour and impairment. Objective measures of the parent-child relationship were collected at baseline and post-treatment. Data analysis was intention to treat (ITT) with treatment effects quantified through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) via multilevel modelling. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) assessed WPJ's cost-effectiveness.

RESULTS: WPJ was superior to TAU in reducing parent-domain stress post-treatment (adjusted mean difference = 5.05, 95% CI 0.33 to 9.81, p = .036) and at follow-up (adjusted mean difference 4.82, 95% CI 0.09 to 9.55, p = .046). Significant WPJ intervention effects were also observed for parenting practices, parenting efficacy and family strain. WPJ and TAU were not significantly different post-intervention or at follow-up for the other secondary outcomes. The incremental cost of WPJ was 34,202 JPY (315.81 USD). The probability that WPJ is cost-effective is 74% at 10,000 JPY (USD 108.30) per one-point improvement in parenting stress, 92% at 20,000 JPY (216.60 USD). The programme was delivered with high fidelity and excellent retention.

CONCLUSIONS: WPJ can be delivered in routine clinical care at modest cost with positive effects on self-reported well-being of the mothers, parenting practices and family coping. WPJ is a promising addition to psychosocial interventions for ADHD in Japan.

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