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Clinical Pharmacology Strategies for Bispecific Antibody Development: Learnings from FDA-Approved Bispecific Antibodies in Oncology.

Bispecific antibodies, by enabling the targeting of more than one disease-associated antigen or engaging immune effector cells, have both advantages and challenges compared with a combination of two different biological products. As of December 2023, there are 11 U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved BsAb products on the market. Among these, 9 have been approved for oncology indications, and 8 of these are CD3 T-cell engagers. Clinical pharmacology strategies, including dose-related strategies, are critical for bispecific antibody development. This analysis reviewed clinical studies of all approved bispecific antibodies in oncology and identified dose-related perspectives to support clinical dose optimization and regulatory approvals, particularly in the context of the Food and Drug Administration's Project Optimus: (1) starting doses and dose ranges in first-in-human studies; (2) dose strategies including step-up doses or full doses for recommended phase 2 doses or dose level(s) used for registrational intent; (3) restarting therapy after dose delay; (4) considerations for the introduction of subcutaneous doses; (5) body weight vs. flat dosing strategy; and (6) management of immunogenicity. The learnings arising from this review are intended to inform successful strategies for future bispecific antibody development.

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