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Prenatal Cardiac Ultrasound Markers of Outcomes in Ebstein's Anomaly: An International Multicenter Case Series.

This study aimed to analyze prenatal cardiac ultrasound markers of outcome in fetuses with Ebstein's anomaly (EA). From a retrospective database, 35 fetuses diagnosed with EA at fetal medicine centers in Brazil, Italy, and Poland were retrieved. The primary outcome was perinatal mortality. We analyzed prenatal cardiac ultrasound markers of outcomes and perinatal follow-up. Gestational age at diagnosis, extracardiac fetal anomalies, spontaneous fetal demise, and gestational age at each event were recorded. In postnatal survivors, data on cardiac surgery and short-term postoperative outcomes were collected. Our study included a cohort of 35 fetuses with EA (mean gestational age of 29.4 weeks), in which 6 fetuses were excluded due to termination of pregnancy (3), pregnancy still ongoing (2), and missed follow-up (1). Of the remaining 29 cases, severe tricuspid regurgitation and absence of anterograde pulmonary flow (pulmonary atresia) were observed in 88%. Significant cardiomegaly accounts for 58% of these data with a mean cardiothoracic ratio of 0.59. The cardiovascular profile (CVS) score ≤ 6 in six patients with one survival (4 fetal deaths, one stillbirth, and one survival). All fetuses with CVS score of 5 had intrauterine demise. Seventeen fetuses were born alive (53.1% of 29 cases). Of the remaining fetuses, one (1%) fetal was a stillbirth, six (20%) fetuses were neonatal deaths, and five (17%) fetuses were fetal deaths. Of the nineteen patients who underwent surgery to correct the cardiac defect, 17 survived after surgery. Among the survivors, biventricular cardiac repair was performed using the cone technique (da Silva's approach) in the majority of cases. We observed 2 abnormal karyotypes among in the remaining 29 fetuses. One of the patients with abnormal karyotype was a fetus with ascites and large for gestational age. The other patient with abnormal karyotype underwent cardiac surgery and progressed to neonatal death. Nine patients (25%) had extracardiac anomalies (genitourinary anomalies and single umbilical artery), being that 2 of them are alive and 4 died (2 had fetal and 2 neonatal death). Fetal EA is associated with high mortality. The most common prenatal marker associated with non-survival was CVP score ≤ 6. Fetuses that survived and underwent postnatal corrective surgery are significantly favorable outcomes.

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