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IL-33 and IL-33-derived DC-based tumor immunotherapy.

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family, is a cytokine released in response to tissue damage and is recognized as an alarmin. The multifaceted roles of IL-33 in tumor progression have sparked controversy within the scientific community. However, most findings generally indicate that endogenous IL-33 has a protumor effect, while exogenous IL-33 often has an antitumor effect in most cases. This review covers the general characteristics of IL-33 and its effects on tumor growth, with detailed information on the immunological mechanisms associated with dendritic cells (DCs). Notably, DCs possess the capability to uptake, process, and present antigens to CD8+ T cells, positioning them as professional antigen-presenting cells. Recent findings from our research highlight the direct association between the tumor-suppressive effects of exogenous IL-33 and a novel subset of highly immunogenic cDC1s. Exogenous IL-33 induces the development of these highly immunogenic cDC1s through the activation of other ST2+ immune cells both in vivo and in vitro. Recognizing the pivotal role of the immunogenicity of DC vaccines in DC-based tumor immunotherapy, we propose compelling methods to enhance this immunogenicity through the addition of IL-33 and the promotion of highly immunogenic DC generation.

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