Journal Article
Observational Study
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Time In Tight Range in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A cross-sectional observational single centre study evaluating efficacy of new advanced technologies.

INTRODUCTION: Early and tight glycaemic control is crucial to prevent long-term complications of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). The aim of our study was to compare glucose metrics, including Time In Tight Range (TITR), in a real-world setting.

METHODS: We performed a single-centre cross-sectional study in 534 children and adolescents with T1D. Participants were divided into four groups (multiple daily injections + real-time Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), multiple daily injections + intermittently scanned CGM, sensor augmented pump (SAP), and Advanced Hybrid Closed-Loop (AHCL). Demographical and clinical data were collected and analysed.

RESULTS: The group with AHCL showed significantly higher Time In Range (TIR) (71.31% ± 10.88) than SAP (57.82% ± 14.98; p < 0.001), MDI + rtCGM (54.56% ± 17.04; p < 0.001) and MDI + isCGM (52.17% ± 19.36; p < 0.001) groups with a lower Time Above Range (p < 0.001). The group with AHCL also showed lower Time Below Range than MDI + isCGM and SAP groups (p < 0.01). The overall TITR was 37% ± 14 with 19% of participants who reached a TITR ≥50% with a mean TIR of 81%. AHCL had significantly higher TITR (45.46% ± 11.77) than SAP (36.25% ± 13.53; p < 0.001), MDI + rtCGM (34.03% ± 13.89; p < 0.001) and MDI + isCGM (33.37% ± 15.84; p < 0.001) groups with a lower Coefficient of Variation (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that AHCL ensures a better glycaemic control with an improvement in both TIR and TITR, along with a reduction in CV. Implementation of automated insulin delivery systems should be considered in the treatment of children and adolescents with T1D.

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