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Microleakage of Silver-Modified Atraumatic Restorative Technique (SMART) Restorations Using Silver Diammine Fluoride and High-Viscosity Glass Ionomer.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the microleakage of atraumatic glass ionomer restorations with and without silver diammine fluoride (SDF) application. Restorations with SDF are termed silver-modified atraumatic restorations (SMART). Methods: Sixty carious extracted permanent teeth were randomly allocated to two SMART groups and two control groups (n equals 15 per group) for a total of four groups. After selective caries removal, test specimens were treated with 38 percent SDF and polyacrylic acid conditioner was applied and rinsed; teeth were restored with Fuji IX GP® glass ionomer (n equals 15) or with SMART Advantage™ glass ionomer (SAGI; n equals 15). For control groups, specimens were restored with their respective GI material after selective caries removal, both without SDF. Restored teeth were placed in Dulbecco's Phosphate-Buffered Saline solution at 37 degrees Celsius for 24 hours. Teeth were thermocycled between five and 55 degrees Celsius for 1,000 cycles, stained with two percent basic fuchsin, sectioned, and visually inspected for microleakage utilizing stereomicroscopy on a four-point scale. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on ranks using Dunn's method (P<0.05). Results: Microleakage between the two SMART restoration groups was insignificant. SAGI alone demonstrated significantly more microleakage than all other groups. There was no statistical significance between the Fuji IX GP® control group and the two SMART restoration groups. Conclusions: This in vitro study indicated that silver diammine fluoride placed before glass ionomer restoration does not increase microleakage. Polyacrylic acid may be used after SDF placement without increasing microleakage.

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