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Monogenic diabetes in a Chinese population with young-onset diabetes: A 17-year prospective follow-up study in Hong Kong.

AIMS: Asians have a high prevalence of young-onset diabetes, but the pattern of monogenic diabetes is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of monogenic diabetes in Chinese patients with young-onset diabetes and compare the clinical characteristics and outcome between patients with and without monogenic diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sequenced a targeted panel of 33 genes related to monogenic diabetes in 1021 Chinese patients with non-type 1 diabetes diagnosed at age ≤40 years. Incident complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD), end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and all-cause death were captured since enrolment (1995-2012) until 2019.

RESULTS: In this cohort (mean ± SD age at diagnosis: 33.0 ± 6.0 years, median[IQR] diabetes duration 7.0[1.0-15.0] years at baseline, 44.9% men), 22(2.2%, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.4%-3.2%) had monogenic diabetes. Pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) variants were detected in GCK (n = 6), HNF1A (n = 9), HNF4A (n = 1), PLIN1 (n = 1) and PPARG (n = 2), together with copy number variations in HNF1B (n = 3). Over a median follow-up of 17.1 years, 5(22.7%) patients with monogenic diabetes (incidence rate 12.3[95% CI 5.1-29.4] per 1000 person-years) versus 254(25.4%) without monogenic diabetes (incidence rate 16.7[95% CI 14.8-18.9] per 1000 person-years) developed the composite outcome of CVD, ESKD and/or death (p = 0.490). The multivariable Cox model did not show any difference in hazards for composite events between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese with young-onset non-type 1 diabetes, at least 2% of cases were contributed by monogenic diabetes, over 80% of which were accounted for by P/LP variants in common MODY genes. The incidence of diabetes complications was similar between patients with and without monogenic diabetes.

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