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Predictors of Clinical Outcomes and the Need for Massive Transfusion Protocols in Geriatric Trauma Patients With Hemorrhagic Shock: A Systematic Review.

American Surgeon 2024 May 32
INTRODUCTION: The current literature lacks a clear consensus on the predictors of mortality and outcomes of geriatric trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock. This systematic review aims to investigate predictors of clinical outcomes and the need for massive transfusion protocol in the geriatric trauma population with hemorrhagic shock.

METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, ProQuest, and Google Scholar were searched for studies evaluating geriatric trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock or receiving MTP. Outcomes of interest included the effect of advanced age on clinical outcomes, the accuracy of SI and other variables in predicting mortality and need for MTP, and associations between blood product ratio and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. In most studies, advanced age was an accurate predictor of mortality and complication rates in geriatric patients undergoing management of shock with MTP. SI along with other variables such as systolic blood pressure (SBP) were sensitive predictors of mortality and the need for MTP. Studies evaluating blood product ratio found an increased incidence of complications with higher plasma: red blood cell ratios.

CONCLUSION: Advanced age among geriatric patients is associated with increased mortality and complications when undergoing MTP. Shock Index and age x Shock Index are accurate and reliable predictors of mortality and need for MTP in the geriatric trauma population with hemorrhagic shock suffering blunt and/or penetrating injuries. An increased plasma: RBC ratio was associated with more complications in geriatric patients.

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