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Shock index to predict outcomes in patients with trauma following traffic collisions: a retrospective cohort study.

PURPOSE: Taiwan, which has a rate of high vehicle ownership, faces significant challenges in managing trauma caused by traffic collisions. In Taiwan, traffic collisions contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, with a high incidence of severe bleeding trauma. The shock index (SI) and the modified shock index (MSI) have been proposed as early indicators of hemodynamic instability. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of SI and MSI in predicting adverse outcomes in patients with trauma following traffic collisions.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Chi Mei Hospital from January 2015 to December 2020. The comprehensive analysis included 662 patients, with data collected on vital signs and outcomes such as mortality, blood transfusion, emergent surgical intervention (ESI), transarterial embolization (TAE), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Optimal cutoff points for SI and MSI were identified by calculating the Youden index. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess outcomes, adjusting for demographic and injury severity variables.

RESULTS: An SI threshold of 1.11 was associated with an increased risk of mortality, while an SI of 0.84 predicted the need for blood transfusion in the context of traffic collisions. Both SI and MSI demonstrated high predictive power for mortality and blood transfusion, with acceptable accuracy for TAE, ESI, and ICU admission. Logistic regression analyses confirmed the independence of SI and MSI as risk factors for adverse outcomes, thus, providing valuable insights into their clinical utility.

CONCLUSIONS: SI and MSI are valuable tools for predicting mortality and blood transfusion needs in patients with trauma due to traffic collisions. These findings advance the quality of care for patients with trauma during their transition from the emergency room to the ICU, facilitating prompt and reliable decision-making processes and improving the care of patients with trauma.

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