Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease and atrial fibrillation: a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.

Background: In observational studies, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is linked to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is uncertain whether the relationship is due to GERD-induced AF or GERD caused by AF, or confusion with factors related to GERD and AF such as obesity and sleep-disordered breathing. We applied bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR), in which genetic variations are used as instrumental variables to resolve confounding and reverse causation issues, to determine the causal effect between GERD and AF. Methods: Using summary data from the GERD and AF genome-wide association study (GWAS), a bidirectional MR was performed to estimate the causative impact of GERD on AF risk and AF on GERD risk. The GWAS of GERD meta-analysis comprised 78707 cases and 288734 controls. GWAS summary data for AF, including 45766 AF patients and 191924 controls, were used to genetically predicted AF. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was the major MR approach used. MR-PRESSO was implemented to detect heterogeneity and correct the effect of outliers. Weighted median and MR-Egger regression were applied to test heterogeneity and pleiotropy. Results: The genetic instruments of GERD related to increasing the risk of AF, with an OR of 1.339 (95% CI: 1.242-1.444, p < 0.001). However, after removing the outlier 8 SNPs, genetically predicted AF was not associated with an elevated risk of GERD ( p = 0.351). Conclusions: Our result suggested that GERD had a causal effect on AF. However, no evidence was identified that AF elevated the risk of GERD.

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