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A retrospective review of antiphospholipid syndrome: a single tertiary centre experience.

INTRODUCTION: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Our study aims to study the clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment strategies and outcomes of APS patients retrospectively.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all APS patients treated in Rheumatology Unit, Hospital Pulau Pinang between October 2021 and October 2022 was conducted.

RESULTS: A total of 53 APS patients (age 42.4±13.9 years) including 22 (41.5%) primary and 31 (58.5%) secondary APS patients were identified. Thrombosis was the most common clinical manifestation (51/53; 96.2%) followed by pregnancy morbidity (15/45; 33.3%). For other clinical manifestations, aPL-associated thrombocytopenia was the most frequently observed manifestation (26.4%) followed by autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (18.9%). Lupus anticoagulant (LA) (88.7%) was the most commonly found aPL followed by anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) (50.9%) and anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibody (B2GP1) (30.2%). 10 (18.9%) patients tested positive for all three aPL. The majority of our patients (86.8%) receive warfarin as anticoagulation therapy while the remaining receive aspirin or direct oral anticoagulants.

CONCLUSION: Our population cohort demonstrated a high incidence of pregnancy morbidities and a similar incidence of thrombotic events compared to other population cohorts in both Asian and the European countries.

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