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Adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Endocrine 2024 May 31
BACKGROUND: Despite several epidemiological studies reporting a significant association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the risk of diabetes mellitus, the results remain controversial. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize the existing evidence from published observational studies and evaluate the dose-response relationship between adherence to the DASH diet and diabetes mellitus risk.

METHODS: We performed a systematic search for relevant articles published up to September 2023 using electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). A random-effects model was applied to calculate the combined relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest compared to the lowest categories of DASH score in relation to diabetes mellitus risk. Heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using the Cochran's Q test and I-squared (I2 ) statistic. Literature search, study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies involving 557,475 participants and 57,064 diabetes mellitus cases were eligible for our analyses. Pooled analyses from included studies showed that high adherence to the DASH diet was significantly associated with a reduced risk of diabetes mellitus (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.76-0.90, P < 0.001). Moreover, the dose-response meta-analysis revealed a linear trend between adherence to the DASH diet and diabetes mellitus (RR:0.99; 95%CI: 0.97-1.02, Pdose-response  = 0.546, Pnonlinearity  = 0.701). Subgroup analyses further revealed a significant inverse association between adherence to the DASH diet and diabetes mellitus risk in case-control studies (RR: 0.65; 95%CI: 0.29-1.43, P < 0.001), with a marginal inverse association in cohort studies (RR:0.83; 95%CI: 0.76-0.91, P < 0.001). Additionally, we conducted analyses separately by comparison and found a significant inverse association between DASH diet and diabetes mellitus risk in T3 vs T1 comparison studies (RR = 0.74; 95%CI: 0.64-0.86, P = 0.012).

CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate a protective association between adherence to the DASH diet and risk of diabetes mellitus. However, further prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these findings.

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