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Early prediction of acute gallstone pancreatitis severity: a novel machine learning model based on CT features and open access online prediction platform.

Annals of Medicine 2024 December
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis severity (GSP) is challenging in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of CT features and radiomics for the early prediction of acute GSP severity.

METHODS: We retrospectively recruited GSP patients who underwent CT imaging within 48 h of admission from tertiary referral centre. Radiomics and CT features were extracted from CT scans. The clinical and CT features were selected by the random forest algorithm to develop the ML GSP model for the identification of severity of GSP (mild or severe), and its predictive efficacy was compared with radiomics model. The predictive performance was assessed by the area under operating characteristic curve. Calibration curve and decision curve analysis were performed to demonstrate the classification performance and clinical efficacy. Furthermore, we built a web-based open access GSP severity calculator. The study was registered with (NCT05498961).

RESULTS: A total of 301 patients were enrolled. They were randomly assigned into the training ( n  = 210) and validation ( n  = 91) cohorts at a ratio of 7:3. The random forest algorithm identified the level of calcium ions, WBC count, urea level, combined cholecystitis, gallbladder wall thickening, gallstones, and hydrothorax as the seven predictive factors for severity of GSP. In the validation cohort, the areas under the curve for the radiomics model and ML GSP model were 0.841 (0.757-0.926) and 0.914 (0.851-0.978), respectively. The calibration plot shows that the ML GSP model has good consistency between the prediction probability and the observation probability. Decision curve analysis showed that the ML GSP model had high clinical utility.

CONCLUSIONS: We built the ML GSP model based on clinical and CT image features and distributed it as a free web-based calculator. Our results indicated that the ML GSP model is useful for predicting the severity of GSP.

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