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Sex differences in atrial fibrillation ablation outcomes in patients with heart failure.

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on the impact of sex on the outcomes of patients with heart failure (HF) undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We aimed to analyze the association of sex with outcomes of atrial fibrillation ablation in patients with heart failure.

METHODS: The National Readmissions Database (NRD) was analyzed from 2016 to 2019 to identify patients ≥ 18 years old with heart failure (HF) undergoing AF ablation. The outcomes of interest included peri-procedural complications, in-hospital mortality, resource utilization, and unplanned 1-year readmissions. The final cohort was divided into patients with HFrEF and HFpEF and outcomes were compared between males and females in both cohorts.

RESULTS: A total of 23,277 patients with HF underwent AF ablation between 2016 and 2019, of which 14,480 had HFrEF and 8,797 had HFpEF. Among patients with HFrEF, 61.6% were males and 38.4% were females whereas, among patients with HFpEF, 35.4% were males and 64.6% were females. On a multivariable-adjusted analysis, in patients with HFrEF, there was no difference in the odds of in-hospital mortality, peri-procedural complications, or 1-year HF-related/AF-related/all-cause readmissions between males and females. In patients with HFpEF, females had a higher risk 1-year HF-related readmissions (adjusted hazards ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.13-1.87; p = 0.01), without any difference in the 1-year AF-related/all-cause readmissions, in-hospital mortality, or peri-procedural complications.

CONCLUSION: Our results show that females with HFrEF undergoing AF ablation have similar outcomes whereas females with HFpEF have higher 1-year HF readmissions with no difference in the other outcomes, compared to males.

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