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Comparison of Different Ultrasonic Screening Methods and Analysis of High Risk Factors for Fetal Cardiac Malformation in Second Trimester of Pregnancy.

Current study aims to compare the application of two-dimensional (2D) color doppler ultrasound (CDU) and four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) in fetal congenital heart disease in the second trimester of pregnancy and to analyze the high risk factors of the disease. From August 2019 to July 2021, 135 second-trimester patients with highly suspected congenital heart malformations were selected who underwent prenatal screening at South Taihu Hospital Affiliated to Huzhou University. 2D-CDU, 4D STIC, and postnatal examination were completed in all patients. 2D-CDU, 4D STIC and 2D-CDU combined with 4D STIC were used to detect fetal cardiac malformations and classify cardiac malformations. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and coincidence rate of 2D-CDU, 4D STIC and 2D-CDU combined with 4D STIC were compared. The results of 2D-CDU, 4D STIC and 2D-CDU combined with 4D STIC screening were analyzed for consistency using the results of postpartum diagnosis as the gold standard. Moreover, effects of maternal gestational factors on fetal cardiac malformations by univariate and multivariate analysis. 2D-CDU combined with 4D STIC showed significantly higher section display number than 2D-CDU or 4D STIC in the view of ductal arch, aortic arch, and aortic short-axis. A total of 45 cases of fetal congenital heart malformation were detected in 135 patients in the second trimester, 40, 38 or 42 cases were detected by 2D-CDU, 4D STIC or 2D-CDU combined with 4D STIC, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and coincidence rate of 2D-CDU combined with 4D ultrasound in congenital heart malformation screening were higher than those of 2D-CDU or 4D STIC. Kappa agreement analysis showed that the diagnostic results of 4D STIC and 2D-CDU combined with 4D ultrasound in fetuses with suspected congenital heart malformation were in excellent agreement (κ > 0.75), while 2D-CDU was in good agreement with postpartum diagnosis (κ < 0.75). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis revealed that maternal age ≥ 35, drinking during pregnancy, and history of adverse pregnancy and childbirth were all independent risk factors for fetal cardiac malformations, while folic acid supplementation was an independent protective factor for fetal cardiac malformations. 2D-CDU combined with 4D echocardiography may be superior to single 2D-CDU or 4D STIC in the screening of fetal congenital heart malformation in the second trimester. In order to reduce the incidence of fetal heart anomalies, we should strengthen the screening of pregnancy anomalies in high-risk pregnant women and control the risk factors.

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