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Advances in Understanding and Managing Myasthenia Gravis: Current Trends and Future Directions.

Curēus 2024 April
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune illness characterized by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), and an increasing number of extra postsynaptic proteins. Pathogenic autoantibodies reduce the number of functional AChRs in the neuromuscular junction's (NMJ) muscle end plate. The cause of the autoimmune response is unknown, but thymic abnormalities and immune regulatory deficiencies are significant. The disease's incidence is likely influenced by genetic predisposition, with sex hormones and exercise playing a role. MG can affect any age, race, or gender and can be caused by any stressor, with infections being the most frequent cause. Treatment focuses on airway support and the triggering incident. MG is a rare autoimmune disease causing fatigue-inducing weakness in the axial, respiratory, leg, and bulbar muscles. Initially affecting the eyes, most MG patients experience at least one worsening symptom during their illness. The disease is mainly caused by antibodies against the AChR, dependence on the immune system within cells, and engagement of the complement system. The complement system plays a significant role in MG, and complement inhibition can both prevent the onset and slow its development. Ocular MG affects around 15% of people, with most patients having blocking antibodies against the cholinergic receptor. There may be correlations between thymoma and other autoimmune conditions, especially thyroid illness. Treatment and management for MG involve removing autoantibodies from circulation or blocking effector mechanisms using techniques such as complement inhibition, plasmapheresis, and B-cell elimination.

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