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LRG1 Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Multiple Kidney Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

Kidney Diseases 2024 June
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of kidney diseases has become a significant public health issue, with a global prevalence exceeding 10%. In order to accurately identify biochemical changes and treatment outcomes associated with kidney diseases, novel methods targeting specific genes have been discovered. Among these genes, leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) has been identified to function as a multifunctional pathogenic signaling molecule in multiple diseases, including kidney diseases. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence regarding the roles of LRG1 in different types of kidney diseases.

SUMMARY: Based on a comprehensive review, it was found that LRG1 was upregulated in the urine, serum, or renal tissues of patients or experimental animal models with multiple kidney diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy, kidney injury, IgA nephropathy, chronic kidney diseases, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, end-stage renal disease, canine leishmaniosis-induced kidney disease, kidney fibrosis, and aristolochic acid nephropathy. Mechanistically, the role of LRG1 in kidney diseases is believed to be detrimental, potentially through its regulation of various genes and signaling cascades, i.e., fibronectin 1, GPR56, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR-2, death receptor 5, GDF15, HIF-1α, SPP1, activin receptor-like kinase 1-Smad1/5/8, NLRP3-IL-1b, and transforming growth factor β pathway.

KEY MESSAGES: Further research is needed to fully comprehend the molecular mechanisms by which LRG1 contributes to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of kidney diseases. It is anticipated that targeted treatments focusing on LRG1 will be utilized in clinical trials and implemented in clinical practice in the future.

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