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Expanding the Spectrum of Diseases and Disease Associations Caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Related Species.

Microorganisms 2024 May 21
The genus Edwardsiella , previously residing in the family Enterobacteriaceae and now a member of the family Hafniaceae , is currently composed of five species, although the taxonomy of this genus is still unsettled. The genus can primarily be divided into two pathogenic groups: E. tarda strains are responsible for almost all human infections, and two other species ( E. ictaluri , E. piscicida ) cause diseases in fish. Human infections predominate in subtropical habitats of the world and in specific geospatial regions with gastrointestinal disease, bloodborne infections, and wound infections, the most common clinical presentations in decreasing order. Gastroenteritis can present in many different forms and mimic other intestinal disturbances. Chronic gastroenteritis is not uncommon. Septicemia is primarily found in persons with comorbid conditions including malignancies and liver disease. Mortality rates range from 9% to 28%. Most human infections are linked to one of several risk factors associated with freshwater or marine environments such as seafood consumption. In contrast, edwardsiellosis in fish is caused by two other species, in particular E. ictaluri . Both E. ictaluri and E. piscicida can cause massive outbreaks of disease in aquaculture systems worldwide, including enteric septicemia in channel catfish and tilapia. Collectively, these species are increasingly being recognized as important pathogens in clinical and veterinary medicine. This article highlights and provides a current perspective on the taxonomy, microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of this increasingly important group.

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