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A Review of the Mechanisms of Bacterial Colonization of the Mammal Gut.

Microorganisms 2024 May 20
A healthy animal intestine hosts a diverse population of bacteria in a symbiotic relationship. These bacteria utilize nutrients in the host's intestinal environment for growth and reproduction. In return, they assist the host in digesting and metabolizing nutrients, fortifying the intestinal barrier, defending against potential pathogens, and maintaining gut health. Bacterial colonization is a crucial aspect of this interaction between bacteria and the intestine and involves the attachment of bacteria to intestinal mucus or epithelial cells through nonspecific or specific interactions. This process primarily relies on adhesins. The binding of bacterial adhesins to host receptors is a prerequisite for the long-term colonization of bacteria and serves as the foundation for the pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Intervening in the adhesion and colonization of bacteria in animal intestines may offer an effective approach to treating gastrointestinal diseases and preventing pathogenic infections. Therefore, this paper reviews the situation and mechanisms of bacterial colonization, the colonization characteristics of various bacteria, and the factors influencing bacterial colonization. The aim of this study was to serve as a reference for further research on bacteria-gut interactions and improving animal gut health.

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