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Interplay of Demographic Influences, Clinical Manifestations, and Longitudinal Profile of Laboratory Parameters in the Progression of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Insights from the Saudi Population.

Microorganisms 2024 May 19
Understanding the factors driving SARS-CoV-2 infection progression and severity is complex due to the dynamic nature of human physiology. Therefore, we aimed to explore the severity risk indicators of SARS-CoV-2 through demographic data, clinical manifestations, and the profile of laboratory parameters. The study included 175 patients either hospitalized at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh or placed in quarantine at designated hotels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from June 2020 to April 2021. Hospitalized patients were followed up through the first week of admission. Demographic data, clinical presentations, and laboratory results were retrieved from electronic patient records. Our results revealed that older age (OR: 1.1, CI: [1.1-1.12]; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR: 2.26, CI: [1.0-5.1]; p = 0.047), and blood urea nitrogen level (OR: 2.56, CI: [1.07-6.12]; p = 0.034) were potential predictors of severity level. In conclusion, the study showed that apart from laboratory parameters, age and gender could potentially predict the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the early stages. To our knowledge, this study is the first in Saudi Arabia to explore the longitudinal profile of laboratory parameters among risk factors, shedding light on SARS-CoV-2 infection progression parameters.

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