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Diabetes and Renal Complications: An Overview on Pathophysiology, Biomarkers and Therapeutic Interventions.

Biomedicines 2024 May 16
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major microvascular complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DKD is characterised by injury to both glomerular and tubular compartments, leading to kidney dysfunction over time. It is one of the most common causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Persistent high blood glucose levels can damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys, impairing their ability to filter waste and fluids from the blood effectively. Other factors like high blood pressure (hypertension), genetics, and lifestyle habits can also contribute to the development and progression of DKD. The key features of renal complications of diabetes include morphological and functional alterations to renal glomeruli and tubules leading to mesangial expansion, glomerulosclerosis, homogenous thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and progressive decline in renal function. In advanced stages, DKD may require treatments such as dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life. Therefore, early detection and proactive management of diabetes and its complications are crucial in preventing DKD and preserving kidney function.

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