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Quality of life, diabetes-related stress and treatment satisfaction are correlated with glycemia risk index (GRI), time in range and hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia components in type 1 diabetes.

Endocrine 2024 May 25
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the relationship between the GRI -component of hypoglycemia (CHypo) and hyperglycemia (CHyper)- with diabetes quality of life (DQoL), diabetes-related stress (DDS), perception of hypoglycemia (Clarke Test), visual analogic scale (VAS) and diabetes-knowledge (DKQ2) in T1D.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 92 patients with T1D under intensive insulin treatment (21.7% CSII) and flash glucose monitoring (isCGM). Clinical, metabolic and glycometric parameters and quality of life/satisfaction questionnaires were analyzed.

RESULTS: 92 patients (54.3% male, BMI 25.4 ± 4.5 kg/m2 , HbA1c 7.5 ± 1.0%, TIR 53.9 ± 15.9%) with mean age 36.1 ± 12.6years and 17.8 ± 11.3 T1D duration. The mean GRI was 60.6 ± 22.2 with a CHypo and CHyper of 5.9 ± 4.8 and 27.3 ± 14.4, respectively. 19.1% presented a pathological Clarke's test. Patients with TIR > 70% and GRI < 40 showed better VAS (8.8 ± 1.3 vs 9.3 ± 0.9, p < 0.05) and DDS (46.4 ± 22.1 vs 36.7 ± 16.6, p < 0.05) scores, showing no differences between groups. CHyper > 15 and Chypo > 3.4 were related to worse levels of DQoL (91.1 ± 23.9 vs 76.6 ± 18.6 and 94.6 ± 24.8 vs 79.8 ± 20.1, p < 0.01), DDS(49.8 ± 22.4 vs 35.7 ± 16.5 and 49.8 ± 22.4 vs 35.7 ± 16.5, p < 0.01),and DKQ2 (24.4 ± 4.3 vs 26.8 ± 5.2 and 24.1 ± 4.8 vs 26.0 ± 4.6, p < 0.05), respectively. Worse metabolic control defined by GRI correlated with worse scores in VAS (r = -0.209, p < 0.05), DQoL (r = 0.205, p < 0.05), and DDS (r = 0.205, p < 0.05). No difference was observed in knowledge´s scale. CHyper correlated with worse scores in VAS (r = -0.231, p < 0.05), DQoL (r = 0.422, p < 0.01), and DDS (r = 0.341, p < 0.01) and lower degree of knowledge DKQ2 (r = -0.231, p < 0.05). When analyzing DQoL as a dependent variable in a multiple lineal regression, only age (β = 0.747; p < 0.001) and CHyper (β = 0.717; p < 0.001) maintained statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher GRI was related to worse quality of life, diabetes-related stress and satisfaction with treatment, analogous to the TIR results.CHyper an Chypo were related to a greater decline in quality of life, diabetes-related stress, and lower satisfaction with treatment.However, in a multiple linear regression, only CHyper maintained statistical significance.

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