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The Discovery of Acremochlorins O-R from an Acremonium sp. through Integrated Genomic and Molecular Networking.

The fermentation of a soil-derived fungus Acremonium sp. led to the isolation of thirteen ascochlorin congeners through integrated genomic and Global Natural Product Social (GNPS) molecular networking. Among the isolated compounds, we identified two unusual bicyclic types, acremochlorins O ( 1 ) and P ( 2 ), as well as two linear types, acremochlorin Q ( 3 ) and R ( 4 ). Compounds 1 and 2 contain an unusual benzopyran moiety and are diastereoisomers of each other, the first reported for the ascochlorins. Additionally, we elucidated the structure of 5 , a 4-chloro-5-methylbenzene-1,3-diol with a linear farnesyl side chain, and confirmed the presence of eight known ascochlorin analogs ( 6 - 13 ). The structures were determined by the detailed interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MS, and ECD calculations. Compounds 3 and 9 showed potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus , with MIC values ranging from 2 to 16 μg/mL.

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