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Changes in Black Truffle ( Tuber melanosporum ) Aroma during Storage under Different Conditions.

The enticing aroma of truffles is a key factor for their culinary value. Although all truffle species tend to be pricy, the most intensely aromatic species are the most sought after. Research into the aroma of truffles encompasses various disciplines including chemistry, biology, and sensory science. This study focusses on the chemical composition of the aroma of black truffles ( Tuber melanosporum ) and the changes occurring under different storage conditions. For this, truffle samples were stored under different treatments, at different temperatures, and measured over a total storage time of 12 days. Measurements of the truffle aroma profiles were taken with SPME/GC-MS at regular intervals. To handle the ample data collected, a systematic approach utilizing multivariate data analysis techniques was taken. This approach led to a vast amount of data which we made publicly available for future exploration. Results reveal the complexity of aroma changes, with 695 compounds identified, highlighting the need for a comprehensive understanding. Principal component analyses offer initial insights into truffle composition, while individual compounds may serve as markers for age (formic acid, 1-methylpropyl ester), freshness (2-Methyl-1-propanal; 1-(methylthio)-propane), freezing (tetrahydrofuran), salt treatment (1-chloropentane), or heat exposure (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone). This research suggests that heat treatment or salt contact significantly affects truffle aroma, while freezing and cutting have less pronounced effects in comparison. The enrichment of compounds showing significant changes during storage was investigated with a metabolomic pathway analysis. The involvement of some of the enriched compounds on the pyruvate/glycolysis and sulfur pathways was shown.

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