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Enhanced versus standard hydration in acute ischaemic stroke: REVIVE - a randomised clinical trial.

RATIONALE: Early neurological deterioration (END) within 72 hours of stroke onset is associated with poor prognosis. Optimising hydration might reduce the risk of END.

AIMS: To determine in acute ischaemic stroke patients if enhanced hydration versus standard hydration reduced the incidence of major (primary) and minor (secondary) END, as whether it increased the incidence of early neurological improvement (secondary), at 72 hours after admissionSample Size Estimate: 244 participants per arm.

METHODS AND DESIGN: A prospective, double-blinded, multicentre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial conducted at 4 hospitals from April 2014 to July 2020, with data analysed in August 2020. The sample size estimated was 488 participants (244 per arm). Ischaemic stroke patients with measurable neurological deficits of onset within 12 hours of emergency department presentation and blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Cr) ratio ≥15 at point of admission were enrolled and randomised to 0.9% sodium chloride infusions of varying rates - enhanced hydration (20 mL/kg body weight, one-third given via bolus and remainder over 8 hours) versus standard hydration (60 mL/hour for 8 hours), followed by maintenance infusion of 40-80 mL/hour for the subsequent 64 hours. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of major early neurological deterioration at 72 hours after admission, defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of ≥4 points from baseline.

RESULTS: 487 participants were randomised (median age 67 years; 287 females). At 72 hours: 7 (2.9%) in the enhanced-hydration arm and 5(2.0%) in the standard-hydration developed major early neurological deterioration (p=0.54). The incidence of minor early neurological deterioration and early neurological improvement did not differ between treatment arms.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Enhanced hydration ratio did not reduce END or improve short term outcomes in acute ischaemic stroke.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02099383, https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT02099383).

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