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Assessing the safety of bedaquiline: insight from adverse event reporting system analysis.

BACKGROUND: The development and marketing of Bedaquiline (BDQ) represent significant advancements in treating tuberculosis, particularly multidrug-resistant forms. However, comprehensive research into BDQ's real-world safety remains limited.

PURPOSE: We obtained BDQ related adverse event (AE) information from the US Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to assess its safety and inform drug usage.

METHODS: The AE data for BDQ from 2012 Q4 to 2023 Q3 was collected and standardized. Disproportionality analysis, including Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR), Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), Multi-item Gamma Poisson Shrinker (MGPS), and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) was used to quantify signals of BDQ-related AEs. Logistic regression was used to analyze the individual data of hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury, and multiple linear regression models were established. Additionally, network pharmacology was employed to identify the potential biological mechanisms of BDQ-induced liver injury.

RESULTS: We identified 2017 case reports directly related to BDQ. Our analysis identified 341 Preferred Terms (PTs) characterizing these AEs across 27 System Organ Classes (SOC). An important discovery was the identification of AEs associated with ear and labyrinth disorders, which had not been documented in the drug's official leaflet before. Subgroup analysis revealed a negative correlation between BDQ-related liver injury and females (OR: 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3-0.6). In addition, via network pharmacology approach, a total of 76 potential targets for BDQ related liver injury were predicted, and 11 core target genes were selected based on the characterization of protein-protein interactions. The pathway linked to BDQ-induced liver injury was identified, and it was determined that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway contained the highest number of associated genes.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of the FAERS database revealed adverse events linked to BDQ, prompting the use of a network pharmacology approach to study the potential molecular mechanism of BDQ-induced liver injury. These findings emphasized the significance of drug safety and offered understanding into the mechanisms behind BDQ-induced liver injury. BDQ demonstrated distinct advantages, including reduced incidence of certain adverse events compared to traditional treatments such as injectable agents and second-line drugs. However, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of this analysis, including potential underreporting and confounding factors. This study provides valuable insights into the safety of BDQ and its role in the management of MDR-TB, emphasizing the need for continued surveillance and monitoring to ensure its safe and effective use.

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