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New insights into the potential cardioprotective effects of telmisartan and nanoformulated extract of Spirulina platensis via regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in an experimental model.

BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity is one of the limiting side effects of the commonly used anticancer agent cyclophosphamide (Cyclo).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The possible protective effects of telmisartan and nanoformulated Spirulina platensis (Sp) methanolic extract against Cyclo-induced cardiotoxicity were examined in this study. Experimental groups of rats were randomly divided into nine groups as control vehicle, control polymer, telmisartan (TEL, 10 mg/kg), free Sp extract (300 mg/kg), nano Sp extract (100 mg/kg), Cyclo (200 mg/kg), TEL + Cyclo, free Sp + Cyclo, and nano Sp + Cyclo. The groups with Cyclo combinations were treated in the same manner as their corresponding ones without Cyclo, with a single dose of Cyclo on day 18.

RESULTS: The results indicate that Cyclo causes significant cardiotoxicity, manifesting in the form of notable increases of 155.49%, 105.74%, 451.76%, and 826.07% in the serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) enzyme activities, respectively, as compared to the control. In addition, the cardiac glutathione (GSH) content and activity of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) enzyme decreased by 65.94% and 73.85%, respectively. Treatment with nano Sp extract showed the most prominent restorations of the altered biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as compared with those by TEL and free Sp; moreover, reductions of 30.64% and 43.02% in the p-AKT content as well as 60.43% and 75.30% of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity were detected in the TEL and free Sp treatment groups, respectively. Interestingly, nano Sp boosted the autophagy signal via activation of beclin-1 (36.42% and 153.4%), activation of LC3II (69.13% and 195%), downregulation of p62 expressions (39.68% and 62.45%), and increased gene expressions of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) (90.3% and 225.9%) compared to the TEL and free Sp treatment groups, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the protective efficiency of telmisartan and nano Sp extract against cardiotoxicity via activations of the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and autophagy signaling pathways.

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