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MOG antibody-associated optic neuritis.

Eye 2024 May 24
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is a demyelinating disorder, distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). MOGAD most frequently presents with optic neuritis (MOG-ON), often with characteristic clinical and radiological features. Bilateral involvement, disc swelling clinically and radiologically, and longitudinally extensive optic nerve hyperintensity with associated optic perineuritis on MRI are key characteristics that can help distinguish MOG-ON from optic neuritis due to other aetiologies. The detection of serum MOG immunoglobulin G utilising a live cell-based assay in a patient with a compatible clinical phenotype is highly specific for the diagnosis of MOGAD. This review will highlight the key clinical and radiological features which expedite diagnosis, as well as ancillary investigations such as visual fields, visual evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, which may be less discriminatory. Optical coherence tomography can identify optic nerve swelling acutely, and atrophy chronically, and may transpire to have utility as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. MOG-ON appears to be largely responsive to corticosteroids, which are often the mainstay of acute management. However, relapses are common in patients in whom follow-up is prolonged, often in the context of early or rapid corticosteroid tapering. Establishing optimal acute therapy, the role of maintenance steroid-sparing immunotherapy for long-term relapse prevention, and identifying predictors of relapsing disease remain key research priorities in MOG-ON.

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