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Imaging the brain: diagnosis aided by structural features on neuroimaging studies.

Eye 2024 May 24
The use of neuroimaging allows the ophthalmologist to identify structural lesions in the orbit or along the neuroaxis that allow for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with neuro-ophthalmic diseases. The primary imaging tools include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both of which can be used to evaluate the brain, spinal cord and canal, and orbits. Neurovascular structures, both arterial and venous, also can be imaged in high resolution with modern CT and MR angiography and CT and MR venography. In many cases, invasive procedures such as catheter angiography can be avoided with these studies, and angiography is often reserved for confirmation of vascular lesions combined with endovascular treatment. In this article, we illustrate how the evaluation of patients presenting with neuro-ophthalmic diseases involving the afferent and efferent visual pathways can be optimized with the use of appropriate diagnostic imaging studies. The complementary value of ophthalmic imaging is also demonstrated, and the advantages and disadvantages of both CT and MRI as well as their use in longitudinal patient follow up is demonstrated.

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