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Image-guided percutaneous strategies to improve the resectability of HCC: Portal vein embolization, liver venous deprivation, or radiation lobectomy?

Despite considerable advances in surgical technique, many patients with hepatic malignancies are not operative candidates due to projected inadequate hepatic function following resection. Consequently, the size of the future liver remnant (FLR) is an essential consideration when predicting a patient's likelihood of liver insufficiency following hepatectomy. Since its initial description 30 years ago, portal vein embolization has become the standard of care for augmenting the size and function of the FLR preoperatively. However, new minimally invasive techniques have been developed to improve surgical candidacy, chief among them liver venous deprivation and radiation lobectomy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the status of preoperative liver augmentation prior to resection of hepatocellular carcinoma with a focus on these three techniques, highlighting the distinctions between them and suggesting directions for future investigation.

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