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Based on Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl DTPA-Enhanced MRI: Diagnostic Performance of the Category-Modified LR-5 Criteria in Patients At Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Introduction: We aimed to modify the LR-5 strategy to improve the diagnostic sensitivity for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk patients while maintaining specificity. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 412 patients with 445 liver observations who underwent preoperative gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA (GD-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI followed by surgical procedures or biopsies. All observations were classified according to LI-RADS v2018, and the classifications were adjusted by modifying major features (MF)(substituting threshold growth with a more HCC-specific ancillary features (AF): presence of blood products within the mass, arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) was interpreted with hypointensity on precontrast imaging- isointensity in arterial phase (AP) and extending washout to transitional phase (TP)(2 min)). The specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were assessed to compare LR-5 (definitely HCC) diagnostic efficacy between LI-RADS version 2018 and modified LI-RADS. Results: Apart from nonenhancing "capsule", the interreader agreement of MFs and HCC-specific AFs between the two readers reached substantial or excellent ranges (κ values ranging from 0.631 to 0.911). According to LI-5 v2018, the specificity, sensitivity and PPV of HCC were 90.74%, 82.35%, and 98.17%, respectively. Based on a more HCC-specific AF, signal intensity in AP and TP (2 min), the sensitivity of the three modified strategies were 86.19%, 93.09%, 96.67% (P < .05)), while maintaining high specificity and PPV rates at 88.89% and 98.25% (P > .05) Conclusion: Further investigation into the efficacy of threshold growth as a MF is warranted. By utilizing GD-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, enhancing the sensitivity of the modified LR-5 category may be achieved without compromising specificity and PPV in diagnosing HCC among high-risk patients.

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