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Role of endogenous GLP-1 on arterial stiffness and renal haemodynamics following bariatric surgery.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular trials have revealed the positive impact of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the specific effects of endogenous GLP-1 on arterial stiffness and renal function remain understudied. This study aimed to explore the influence of endogenous GLP-1 response post-bariatric surgery on arterial stiffness and renal haemodynamic.

METHODS: Thirty individuals with morbid obesity and without T2D, scheduled for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), were included. Clinical parameters, 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with serial sampling for glycaemia, GLP-1 and insulin, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), carotid distensibility coefficient (carotid-DC) and renal resistive index (RRI) measurements were conducted pre-surgery and 1-year post-surgery. Participants were categorized into high-response and low-response groups based on their post-surgery increase in GLP-1 (median increase of 104% and 1%, respectively, pre- vs. post-surgery).

RESULTS: Post-surgery, high-response group demonstrated a greater reduction in cf-PWV (p = .033) and a greater increase (p = .043) in carotid DC compared to low-response group. These enhancements were observed independently of weight loss or blood pressure changes. High-response group exhibited a reduction in RRI (p = .034), although this association was influenced by improvement in pulse pressure. Finally, a multivariate stepwise regression analysis indicated that the percentage increase of GLP1, Δ-GLP1(AUC) %, was the best predictor of percentage decrease in cf-PWV (p = .014).

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated endogenous GLP-1 response following RYGB was associated with improved arterial stiffness and renal resistances, suggesting potential cardio-renal benefits. The findings underscore the potential role of endogenous GLP-1 in influencing vascular and renal haemodynamics independent of traditional weight loss.

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