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Assessing blood sugar measures for predicting new-onset diabetes and cardiovascular disease in community-dwelling adults.

Endocrine 2024 May 22
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global health concern linked to various complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, long-term follow-up studies on the risk of DM and CVD using different blood glucose assessment methods in the general Korean population are lacking. This study aimed to assess the predictive abilities of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for new-onset DM and high CVD risk in a middle-aged and older Korean population.

METHODS: This study used data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a population-based prospective cohort. Blood sugar measures (FPG, OGTT, and HbA1c) were examined. The primary endpoint was the development of new-onset DM, and CVD risk was evaluated using the Framingham risk score. The predictive abilities for new-onset DM based on glycemic values were evaluated using Harrell's Concordance index and 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS: Among the 10,030 participants, data of 6813 participants without DM at baseline were analyzed. The study revealed that OGTT outperformed FPG and HbA1c in predicting new-onset DM. The combination of FPG and HbA1c did not significantly enhance predictions for DM compared with OGTT alone. OGTT also outperformed FPG and HbA1c in predicting high CVD risk, and this difference remained significant even after adjusting for additional confounders.

CONCLUSION: OGTT has superior predictive capabilities in identifying new-onset DM and high CVD risk in the Korean population. This suggests that relying solely on individual blood sugar measures may be insufficient for assessing DM and CVD risks.

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