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Association Between Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression, Hip Pathology, and Patient-Reported Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement.

BACKGROUND: In patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), mental health has been implicated in both symptom severity and postoperative outcomes. However, there are limited data regarding the independent influences of baseline mental health and hip pathology on patient-reported outcomes over time after hip arthroscopy.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between mental health and structural hip pathology with pain, hip function, and quality of life (QOL).

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

METHODS: Patient records from a single surgeon's hip outcomes registry were retrospectively reviewed. Mental health was evaluated using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Anxiety and Depression scores. Pain was evaluated with the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score for Activities of Daily Living (SANE-ADL), while hip-related QOL was evaluated with the 12-item International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12). Hip function was assessed with the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) Sport-Specific (SS) and ADL subscales. Separate mixed models were used to predict pain, QOL, and hip function, including hip pathology measures (size of labral tear, grade of chondral damage, preoperative alpha angle), anxiety, depression, and time as fixed effects and individuals as a random effect.

RESULTS: A total of 312 patients were included in this study. The preoperative alpha angle, degree of intraoperative cartilage damage, and size of the labral tear were not associated with pain or QOL ( P > .05 for all). However, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly associated with lower SANE-ADL scores (estimate ± SE) (anxiety: -0.59 ± 0.07, P < .0001; depression: -0.64 ± 0.08, P < .0001), iHOT-12 scores (anxiety: -0.72 ± 0.07, P < .0001; depression: -0.72 ± 0.08, P < .0001), HOS-SS scores (anxiety: -0.68 ± 0.09, P < .0001; depression: -0.57 ± 0.10, P < .0001), and HOS-ADL scores (anxiety: -0.43 ± 0.05, P < .0001; depression: -0.43 ± 0.06, P < .0001).

CONCLUSION: Patients had similar improvements in pain scores, QOL, and hip function after hip arthroscopy for FAI irrespective of their degree of hip pathology. Additionally, preoperative symptoms of anxiety and depression symptoms were associated with greater pain, decreased QOL, and worse hip function both pre- and postoperatively, independent of the degree of hip pathology. This suggests that efforts to directly address symptoms of anxiety and depression may improve outcomes after hip arthroscopy.

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