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The interplay between metabolic adaptations and diet in cancer immunotherapy.

Over the past decade, cancer immunotherapy has significantly advanced through the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the augmentation of adoptive cell transfer to enhance the innate cancer defense mechanisms. Despite these remarkable achievements, some cancers exhibit resistance to immunotherapy, with limited patient responsiveness and development of therapy resistance. Metabolic adaptations in both immune cells and cancer cells have emerged as central contributors to immunotherapy resistance. In the last few years, new insights emphasized the critical role of cancer and immune cell metabolism in animal models and patients. During therapy, immune cells undergo important metabolic shifts crucial for their acquired effector function against cancer cells. However, cancer cell metabolic rewiring and nutrient competition within tumor microenvironment (TME) alters many immune functions, affecting their fitness, polarization, recruitment, and survival. These interactions have initiated the development of novel therapies targeting tumor cell metabolism and favoring anti-tumor immunity within the TME. Furthermore, there has been increasing interest in comprehending how diet impacts the response to immunotherapy, given the demonstrated immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activity of various nutrients. In conclusion, recent advances in preclinical and clinical studies have highlighted the capacity of immune-based cancer therapies. Therefore, further exploration into the metabolic requirements of immune cells within the TME holds significant promise for the development of innovative therapeutical approaches that can effectively combat cancer in patients.

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