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Risk of heart failure in inflammatory bowel disease: a Swedish population-based study.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dysregulation of inflammatory and immune responses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). But even if inflammation is a prerequisite for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about HF risk in IBD.

METHODS: In this Swedish nationwide cohort, patients with biopsy-confirmed IBD were identified between 1969 and 2017 [n = 81,749, Crohn's disease (CD, n = 24,303), ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 45,709), and IBD-unclassified (IBD-U, n = 11,737)]. Each patient was matched with up to five general population reference individuals (n = 382,190) and IBD-free full siblings (n = 95,239) and followed until 31 December 2019. Flexible parametric survival models estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and standardized cumulative incidence for HF, with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: There were 5,582 incident HF identified in IBD patients (incidence rate [IR]: 50.3/10,000 person-years) and 20,343 in reference individuals (IR: 37.9) during a median follow-up of 12.4 years. IBD patients had a higher risk of HF than reference individuals (aHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.23). This increased risk remained significant ≥20 years after IBD diagnosis, leading to one extra HF case per 130 IBD patients until then. The increased risk was also observed across IBD subtypes: CD (IR: 46.9 vs. 34.4; aHR 1.28 [1.20 to 1.36]), UC (IR: 50.1 vs. 39.7; aHR 1.14 [1.09 to 1.19]), and IBD-U (IR: 60.9 vs. 39.0; aHR 1.28 [1.16 to 1.42]). Sibling-controlled analyses showed slightly attenuated association (IBD: aHR 1.10 [1.03 to 1.19]).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBD had a moderately higher risk of developing HF for ≥20 years after IBD diagnosis than the general population.

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