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Stomach Cancer Prediction Model (SCoPM): An approach to risk stratification in a diverse U.S. population.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Population-based screening for gastric cancer (GC) in low prevalence nations is not recommended. The objective of this study was to develop a risk-prediction model to identify high-risk patients who could potentially benefit from targeted screening in a racial/ethnically diverse regional US population.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study from Kaiser Permanente Southern California from January 2008-June 2018 among individuals age ≥50 years. Patients with prior GC or follow-up <30 days were excluded. Censoring occurred at GC, death, age 85 years, disenrollment, end of 5-year follow-up, or study conclusion. Cross-validated LASSO regression models were developed to identify the strongest of 20 candidate predictors (clinical, demographic, and laboratory parameters). Records from 12 of the medical service areas were used for training/initial validation while records from a separate medical service area were used for testing.

RESULTS: 1,844,643 individuals formed the study cohort (1,555,392 training and validation, 289,251 testing). Mean age was 61.9 years with 53.3% female. GC incidence was 2.1 (95% CI 2.0-2.2) cases per 10,000 person-years (pyr). Higher incidence was seen with family history: 4.8/10,000 pyr, history of gastric ulcer: 5.3/10,000 pyr, H. pylori: 3.6/10,000 pyr and anemia: 5.3/10,000 pyr. The final model included age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, proton-pump inhibitor, family history of gastric cancer, history of gastric ulcer, H. pylori infection, and baseline hemoglobin. The means and standard deviations (SD) of c-index in validation and testing datasets were 0.75 (SD 0.03) and 0.76 (SD 0.02), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: This prediction model may serve as an aid for pre-endoscopic assessment of GC risk for identification of a high-risk population that could benefit from targeted screening.

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