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Anti-obesity effects of a standardized ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced mice.

Food & Function 2024 May 22
Obesity requires treatment to mitigate the potential development of further metabolic disorders, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, tumor growth, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated the anti-obesity effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell (EEB) on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Adipogenesis transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) were ameliorated through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by EEB treatment in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. EEB attenuated mitotic clonal expansion by upregulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) while downregulating cyclins and CDKs. In HFD-fed mice, EEB significantly decreased the total body weight, fat tissue weight, and fat in the tissue. The protein expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 was increased in the subcutaneous fat and liver tissues, while EEB decreased the expression levels of these transcription factors. EEB also inhibited lipogenesis by downregulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in the subcutaneous fat and liver tissues. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC was downregulated in the HFD-induced mouse group, whereas the administration of EEB improved AMPK and ACC phosphorylation; thus, EEB treatment may be related to the AMPK pathway. Histological analysis showed that EEB reduced the adipocyte size and fat accumulation in subcutaneous fat and liver tissues, respectively. EEB promotes thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and improves insulin and leptin levels and blood lipid profiles. Our results suggest that EEB could be used as a potential agent to prevent obesity.

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