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Multimodal digital health treatments for Chronic Migraine associated with Medication Overuse Headache: a literature appraisal and results of a single-arm open trial (the BE-HOME program).

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based treatments gained popularity for migraine treatment. In this manuscript we report the results of a single-arm open pilot study that evaluated the impact of a multimodal web-based intervention combining home-based medication withdrawal, patients' education, and online mindfulness-based interventions. We aimed to address whether our program had the ability to show a change in the observed parameters and the study should therefore be intended as an early phase trial.

METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic migraine associated with medication overuse headache were enrolled, followed-up for 12 months, in a program that included home-based medication withdrawal, education on the correct use of drugs and lifestyle issues, prescription of tailored pharmacological prophylaxis, and attendance to six online mindfulness-based sessions. We tested the effect of the program on improving headache frequency, medication intake, quality of life (QoL), headache impact, depression, self-efficacy, and pain catastrophizing.

RESULTS: A total of 37 patients completed the study (10 dropped out). We observed a large improvement in headache frequency, medication intake, headache impact, and QoL, a moderate improvement in pain catastrophizing and a mild improvement in depression symptoms; 70% to 76% of patients achieved 50% or more reduction in headache frequency from baseline to each follow-up (p < .01).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of our multimodal program showed significant improvements in headache frequency, medication intake, and patient-reported outcomes. Future studies are needed to better identify patients who might benefit most from Digital Health Interventions and to demonstrate at least an equivalence in outcome with in-person programs carried out in hospital settings.

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