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Neurological symptoms in adults with Gaucher disease: a systematic review.

INTRODUCTION: Gaucher disease (GD) is classically divided into three types, based on the presence or absence of neurological signs and symptoms. However, presentation can be highly variable in adulthood, and this aspect has not been adequately addressed in the literature so far. We performed a systematic literature review to analyze the entire spectrum of neurological manifestations in adult patients previously classified as GD type I, II, or III, evaluating the role of variants in different neurological manifestations.

METHODS: We searched databases for studies reporting clinical data of adult GD patients (age ≥ 18). Data extraction included GD types, GBA1 variants, age at disease onset and diagnosis, duration of GD, and age at onset and type of neurological symptoms reported.

RESULTS: Among 4190 GD patients from 85 studies, 555 exhibited neurological symptoms in adulthood. The median age at evaluation was 46.8 years (IQR 26.5), age at neurological symptoms onset was 44 years (IQR 35.1), and age at GD clinical onset was 23 years (IQR 23.4). Parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease and Lewy Body dementia, was the most reported neurological manifestation. Other symptoms and signs encompassed oculomotor abnormalities, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, myoclonus, and cerebellar, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The genotype N370S/N370S mostly presented with Parkinsonism and the L444P variant with severe and earlier neurological symptoms.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review highlight: (1) the relevance of a comprehensive neurological assessment in GD patients, and (2) the importance of considering possible undiagnosed GD in adult patients with mild systemic symptoms presenting unexplained neurological symptoms.

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