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Chronic kidney disease activates the HDAC6-inflammatory axis in the heart and contributes to myocardial remodeling in mice: inhibition of HDAC6 alleviates chronic kidney disease-induced myocardial remodeling.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) adversely affects the heart. The underlying mechanism and the interplay between the kidney and the heart are still obscure. We examined the cardiac effect using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced CKD pre-clinical model in mice. Echocardiography, histopathology of the heart, myocardial mRNA expression of ANP and BNP, the extent of fibrotic (TGF-β, α-SMA, and collagen I) and epigenetic (histone deacetylases, namely HDAC3, HDAC4, and HDAC6) proteins, and myocardial inflammatory response were assessed. Six weeks of post-UUO surgery, we observed a compromised left-ventricular wall thickness and signs of cardiac hypertrophy, accumulation of fibrosis associated, and inflammatory proteins in the heart. In addition, we observed a perturbation of epigenetic proteins, especially HDAC3, HDAC4, and HDAC6, in the heart. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 using ricolinostat (RIC) lessened cardiac damage and improved left-ventricular wall thickness. The RIC treatment substantially restored the serum cardiac injury markers, namely creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, ANP and BNP mRNA expression, and heart histological changes. The extent of myocardial fibrotic proteins, phospho-NF-κB (p65), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-18, and IL-1β) were significantly decreased in the RIC treatment group. Further findings revealed the CKD-induced infiltration of CD3, CD8a, CD11c, and F4/80 positive inflammatory cells in the heart. Treatment with RIC substantially reduced the myocardial infiltration of these inflammatory cells. From these findings, we believe that CKD-induced myocardial HDAC6 perturbation has a deteriorative effect on the heart, and inhibition of HDAC6 can be a promising approach to alleviate CKD-induced myocardial remodeling.

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