Journal Article
Validation Study
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Coding of Childhood Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Electronic Health Records of a Large Integrated Health Care System: Validation Study.

JMIR Mental Health 2024 May 15
BACKGROUND: Mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders are chronic pediatric conditions, and their prevalence has been on the rise over recent decades. Affected children have long-term health sequelae and a decline in health-related quality of life. Due to the lack of a validated database for pharmacoepidemiological research on selected mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, there is uncertainty in their reported prevalence in the literature.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of coding related to pediatric mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in a large integrated health care system's electronic health records (EHRs) and compare the coding quality before and after the implementation of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding as well as before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: Medical records of 1200 member children aged 2-17 years with at least 1 clinical visit before the COVID-19 pandemic (January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, the ICD-9-CM coding period; and January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019, the ICD-10-CM coding period) and after the COVID-19 pandemic (January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2022) were selected with stratified random sampling from EHRs for chart review. Two trained research associates reviewed the EHRs for all potential cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety disorder (AD), and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in children during the study period. Children were considered cases only if there was a mention of any one of the conditions (yes for diagnosis) in the electronic chart during the corresponding time period. The validity of diagnosis codes was evaluated by directly comparing them with the gold standard of chart abstraction using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the summary statistics of the F-score, and Youden J statistic. κ statistic for interrater reliability among the 2 abstractors was calculated.

RESULTS: The overall agreement between the identification of mental, behavioral, and emotional conditions using diagnosis codes compared to medical record abstraction was strong and similar across the ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM coding periods as well as during the prepandemic and pandemic time periods. The performance of AD coding, while strong, was relatively lower compared to the other conditions. The weighted sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for each of the 5 conditions were as follows: 100%, 100%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively, for ASD; 100%, 99.9%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively, for ADHD; 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively for DBD; 87.7%, 100%, 100%, and 99.2%, respectively, for AD; and 100%, 100%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively, for MDD. The F-score and Youden J statistic ranged between 87.7% and 100%. The overall agreement between abstractors was almost perfect (κ=95%).

CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic codes are quite reliable for identifying selected childhood mental, behavioral, and emotional conditions. The findings remained similar during the pandemic and after the implementation of the ICD-10-CM coding in the EHR system.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app