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The effectiveness of probiotics as an adjunct therapy in patients under mechanical ventilation: an umbrella systematic review and meta-analysis.

Food & Function 2024 May 22
The literature regarding the role of probiotics in critically ill patients who have undergone mechanical ventilation (MV) is unclear; therefore, this umbrella systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the effects of probiotics on the clinical outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. The Scopus, PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar online databases were searched up to February 2023. All meta-analyses evaluating the impact of probiotics in patients under MV were considered eligible. The assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) questionnaire was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Data were pooled using the random-effects approach. Thirty meta-analyses and nine clinical outcomes were re-analyzed. Probiotics significantly decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence, nosocomial infections, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, hospital length of stay, ICU mortality, hospital mortality, MV duration, duration of antibiotic use, and diarrhea. The obtained results of the current umbrella meta-analysis indicate that probiotic administration could be considered an adjunct therapy for critically ill patients; however, no specific probiotic treatment regimen can be recommended due to the diverse probiotics used in the included meta-analyses. The following microorganisms were used at various doses and combinations throughout the studies: Lacticaseibacillus casei , Lactiplantibacillus plantarum , L. acidophilus , L. delbrueckii , L. bulgaricus , Bifidobacterium longum , B. breve , B. salivarius , Pediococcus pentosaceus , Lactococcus raffinolactis , B. infantis , B. bifidum , Streptococcus thermophilus , Ligilactobacillus salivarius , L. lactis , B. lactis , Saccharomyces boulardii , L. rhamnosus GG, L. johnsonii , L. casei , S. faecalis , Clostridium butyricum , Bacillus mesentericus , L. sporogenes , S. boulardii , L. paracasei , B. subtilis , and Enterococcus faecium .

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