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National Analysis of Clinical Outcomes Associated With Cirrhotic Blunt Trauma Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy Versus Non-operative Management: A Propensity Case-Matched Analysis.

American Surgeon 2024 May 22
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate clinical outcomes among severely injured trauma patients presenting with isolated blunt abdominal solid organ injuries with a pre-diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (LC) undergoing emergency laparotomy vs nonoperative management (NOM).

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study utilized the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Program Participant Use File (ACS-TQIP-PUF) dataset from 2017 to 2021. Adults (≥18 years) with a pre-existing diagnosis of LC who presented with severe blunt (ISS ≥ 16) isolated solid organ abdominal injuries and underwent laparotomy or NOM were included. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS), and in-hospital complications such as acute renal failure and deep vein thrombosis.

RESULTS: 929 patients were included in this analysis, with 355 undergoing laparotomy and 574 managed nonoperatively. Laparotomy patients suffered greater in-hospital mortality (n = 186, 52.3% vs n = 115, 20.0%; P < .01), required significantly more blood within 4 hours (8.9 units vs 4.3 units, P < .01), and had a significantly longer ICU-LOS (10.2 days vs 6.7 days, P < .01). In the 1:1 propensity score matched analysis of 556 matched patients, in-hospital mortality was greater for laparotomy patients (52.3% vs 20.0%, P < .01).

CONCLUSION: Laparotomy was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality in propensity-matched trauma patients, longer ICU-LOS, and more blood products given at 4 hours compared to NOM. These findings illustrate that NOM may be a safe approach in managing severely injured trauma patients with isolated blunt abdominal solid organ injuries and a pre-diagnosis of LC.

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