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Calculation and Feedback of Risk-Adjusted Antibiotic Days as a Process Measure in a Statewide Trauma Collaborative.

American Surgeon 2024 May 22
BACKGROUND: Optimization of antibiotic stewardship requires determining appropriate antibiotic treatment and duration of use. Our current method of identifying infectious complications alone does not attempt to measure the resources actually utilized to treat infections in patients. We sought to develop a method accounting for treatment of infections and length of antibiotic administration to allow benchmarking of trauma hospitals with regard to days of antibiotic use.

METHODS: Using trauma quality collaborative data from 35 American College of Surgeons (ACS)-verified level I and level II trauma centers between November 1, 2020, and January 31, 2023, a two-part model was created to account for (1) the odds of any antibiotic use, using logistic regression; and (2) the duration of usage, using negative binomial distribution. We adjusted for injury severity, presence/type of infection (eg, ventilator-acquired pneumonia), infectious complications, and comorbid conditions. We performed observed-to-expected adjustments to calculate each center's risk-adjusted antibiotic days, bootstrapped Observed/Expected (O/E) ratios to create confidence intervals, and flagged potential high or low outliers as hospitals whose confidence intervals lay above or below the overall mean.

RESULTS: The mean antibiotic treatment days was 1.98°days with a total of 88,403 treatment days. A wide variation existed in risk-adjusted antibiotic treatment days (.76°days to 2.69°days). Several hospitals were identified as low (9 centers) or high (6 centers) outliers.

CONCLUSION: There exists a wide variation in the duration of risk-adjusted antibiotic use amongst trauma centers. Further study is needed to address the underlying cause of variation and for improved antibiotic stewardship.

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