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CD-Loop: a chromatin loop detection method based on the diffusion model.

MOTIVATION: In recent years, there have been significant advances in various chromatin conformation capture techniques, and annotating the topological structure from Hi-C contact maps has become crucial for studying the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes. However, the structure and function of chromatin loops are highly dynamic and diverse, influenced by multiple factors. Therefore, obtaining the three-dimensional structure of the genome remains a challenging task. Among many chromatin loop prediction methods, it is difficult to fully extract features from the contact map and make accurate predictions at low sequencing depths.

RESULTS: In this study, we put forward a deep learning framework based on the diffusion model called CD-Loop for predicting accurate chromatin loops. First, by pre-training the input data, we obtain prior probabilities for predicting the classification of the Hi-C contact map. Then, by combining the denoising process based on the diffusion model and the prior probability obtained by pre-training, candidate loops were predicted from the input Hi-C contact map. Finally, CD-Loop uses a density-based clustering algorithm to cluster the candidate chromatin loops and predict the final chromatin loops. We compared CD-Loop with the currently popular methods, such as Peakachu, Chromosight, and Mustache, and found that in different cell types, species, and sequencing depths, CD-Loop outperforms other methods in loop annotation. We conclude that CD-Loop can accurately predict chromatin loops and reveal cell-type specificity. The code is available at https://github.com/wangyang199897/CD-Loop.

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