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Immunogenicity of Current and Next-Generation Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in Children: Current Challenges and Upcoming Opportunities.

Global use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) with increasingly broader serotype coverage has helped to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in children and adults. In clinical studies comparing PCVs, higher-valency PCVs have met noninferiority criteria (based on immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations and response rates) for most shared serotypes. A numeric trend of declining immunogenicity against shared serotypes with higher-valency PCVs has also been observed; however, the clinical relevance is uncertain, warranting additional research to evaluate the effectiveness of new vaccines. Novel conjugation processes, carriers, adjuvants, and vaccine platforms are approaches that could help maintain or improve immunogenicity and subsequent vaccine effectiveness while achieving broader protection with increasing valency in pneumococcal vaccines.

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