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Validation of the standardization framework SSTR-RADS 1.0 for neuroendocrine tumors using the novel SSTR‑targeting peptide [ 18 F]SiTATE.

European Radiology 2024 May 21
OBJECTIVES: Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (SSTR-PET/CT) using [68 Ga]-labeled tracers is a widely used imaging modality for neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Recently, [18 F]SiTATE, a SiFAlin tagged [Tyr3]-octreotate (TATE) PET tracer, has shown great potential due to favorable clinical characteristics. We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of Somatostatin Receptor-Reporting and Data System 1.0 (SSTR-RADS 1.0) for structured interpretation and treatment planning of NET using [18 F]SiTATE.

METHODS: Four readers assessed [18 F]SiTATE-PET/CT of 95 patients according to the SSTR-RADS 1.0 criteria at two different time points. Each reader evaluated up to five target lesions per scan. The overall scan score and the decision on peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) were considered. Inter- and intra-reader agreement was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

RESULTS: The ICC analysis on the inter-reader agreement using SSTR-RADS 1.0 for identical target lesions (ICC ≥ 85%), overall scan score (ICC ≥ 90%), and the decision to recommend PRRT (ICC ≥ 85%) showed excellent agreement. However, significant differences were observed in recommending PRRT among experienced readers (ER) (p = 0.020) and inexperienced readers (IR) (p = 0.004). Compartment-based analysis demonstrated good to excellent inter-reader agreement for most organs (ICC ≥ 74%), except for lymph nodes (ICC ≥ 53%).

CONCLUSION: SSTR-RADS 1.0 represents a highly reproducible and consistent framework system for stratifying SSTR-targeted PET/CT scans, even using the novel SSTR-ligand [18 F]SiTATE. Some inter-reader variability was observed regarding the evaluation of uptake intensity prior to PRRT as well as compartment scoring of lymph nodes, indicating that those categories require special attention during further clinical validation and might be refined in a future SSTR-RADS version 1.1.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: SSTR-RADS 1.0 is a consistent framework for categorizing somatostatin receptor-targeted PET/CT scans when using [18 F]SiTATE. The framework serves as a valuable tool for facilitating and improving the management of patients with NET.

KEY POINTS: SSTR-RADS 1.0 is a valuable tool for managing patients with NET. SSTR-RADS 1.0 categorizes patients with showing strong agreement across diverse reader expertise. As an alternative to [68 Ga]-labeled PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumor imaging, SSTR-RADS 1.0 reliably classifies [18 F]SiTATE-PET/CT.

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