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A comprehensive review on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of 8 potent species of southeast Asia.

Genus Prunus comprising around 430 species is a vast important genus of family Rosaceae, subfamily amygdalaoidae. Among all 430 species, around 19 important species are commonly found in Indian sub-continent due to their broad nutritional and economic importance. Some most common species of genus Prunus are Prunus amygdalus, Prunus persica, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus cerasoides, Prunus domestica, Prunus mahaleb , etc. A newly introduced species of Prunus i.e Prunus sunhangii is recently discovered which is morphologically very similar to Prunus cerasoides . Plants of Prunus species are short to medium-sized deciduous trees mainly found in the northern hemisphere. In India and its subcontinent, it extends from the Himalayas to Sikkim, Meghalaya, Bhutan, Myanmar etc . Different Prunus species have been extensively studied for their morphological, microscopic, pharmacological and phytoconstituents characteristics. Total phenolic content of Prunus species explains the presence of phenols in high quantity and pharmacological activity due to phenols. Phytochemical screening of species of genus Prunus shows the presence of wide phytoconstituents which contributes in their pharmacological significance and reveals the therapeutic potential and traditional medicinal significance of this genus. Genus Prunus showed a potent antioxidant activity analyzed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical assay. Plant species belonging to the genus Prunus is widely used traditionally for the treatment of various disorders. Some specific Prunus species possess potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic etc. activity which makes the genus more interesting for further research and findings. This review is an attempt to summarize the comprehensive study of Prunus.

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