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Distribution of Traditional Chinese Medicine syndromes in diabetic kidney disease chronic kidney disease 1-5: a correlation study.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and its related factors.

METHODS: We enrolled 435 patients with DKD, who were not undergoing dialysis, admitted to the Department of Nephrology, First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital from April 2020 to August 2021. Analysis of their TCM syndromes and related factors was carried out.

RESULTS: The 435 patients included 109, 117, 86, and 123 chronic kidney disease (CKD) 1-2, CKD3, CKD4, and CKD5 cases, respectively. With the progression of CKD1-5, the proportion of Yin deficiency and dry heat syndrome, and that of Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome showed a downward trend, whereas the proportion of spleen-kidney Yang deficiency, blood deficiency, blood stasis, water stagnation, and phlegm turbidity syndromes showed an upward trend; the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Yin deficiency and dry heat syndrome was positively correlated with hemoglobin [odds ratio ( OR ) = 1.022, P = 0.005], albumin ( OR = 1.058, P = 0.006), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ( OR = 1.020, P < 0.001) but negatively correlated with male sex ( OR = 0.277, P = 0.004). Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome was positively correlated with albumin ( OR = 1.056, P < 0.001) and eGFR ( OR = 1.008, P = 0.022) but negatively correlated with age ( OR = 0.977, P = 0.023). Liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome was positively correlated with age ( OR = 1.028, P = 0.021) and glycosylated hemoglobin ( OR = 1.223, P = 0.007) but negatively correlated with total cholesterol ( OR = 0.792, P = 0.006). Spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was negatively correlated with hemoglobin ( OR = 0.977, P < 0.001), albumin ( OR = 0.891, P < 0.001), and eGFR ( OR = 0.978, P < 0.001) but positively correlated with high density lipoprotein ( OR = 3.376, P = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: With CKD1-5 progression, TCM syndromes changed from Yin deficiency and dry heat syndrome to syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin , liver-kidney Yin , and spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndromes. TCM syndromes were correlated with laboratory test results.

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